Russia is in transition to a market economy and rapidly created the securities market. In this market the shares and bonds of Russian companies can raise additional funds for their development, strengthening the economy. In addition, even ordinary people, the crucial question of money, also can consider buying shares and bonds for part of the savings were increased along with the growth of securities on apartments for rent and cheap hotels in Novosibirsk. However, there is also the risk that the shares of the company were revalued on the market and will eventually fall in price, or the enterprise itself will be bad to grow, which will lead to the same result with the level of prices for its shares. These risks should reduce the completeness of information about the state of Affairs of the company. That's why there are stock exchange, where trading in securities, and where the condition of the admission of shares to trading on the stock exchange, is the disclosure by the company of its financial and economic situation. The exchange mechanism has become a tool of mobilization of financial capital not only for long-term investments, and short-term loans. Exchange dealers were used to purchase securities not only their own money, but the loan capital borrowed from banks.
Stock market game is very tempting. Buying securities at low and selling at a higher rate, you can get a big stock-market profits. As the organizer of the securities market, stock exchange, originally dedicated solely to creating the necessary conditions for effective trade, but as the market develops her task is not so much a trade organization, as its maintenance.
The exchange creates a clear organizational structure, a clear mechanism of conclusion and execution of transactions with exchange values and highly reliable control system for execution. To trading on the stock exchange allows only verified securities that have passed a rigorous selection of its reliability, solvency. The aim of this paper is an attempt to review and analyze the operation of the stock exchange, to understand its structure and how it exists, what it takes to securities came to the exchange, how is the trading of securities, as the exchange generates their income, to talk about the securities market and the possible operations with them. A separate Chapter tells about the features of formation and functioning of the stock market in Russia. Figures about the volume of sales on the stock exchange of the Moscow interbank currency exchange and Stock exchange "Saint-Petersburg", to get an idea about the state of the securities market in the Russian Federation. The increased risk sources include road, rail, air and sea transport, a number of chemical plants and other Physical or legal person who is in possession of the source of increased danger, can insure their civil liability to third parties, i.e. to shift the responsibility for compensation of material damages to third parties on the insurer. While the insured is confronted with the fact of the uncertainty of the insured event in time and space, the insurer is interested in the probability of occurrence in relation to the entire insured population. Unfulfilled predictions of the insurer concerning the likelihood of potential harm and costs for compensation will be paid in advance by foreknowledge of the possible risk from the insured. Therefore, in theoretical terms the landlord apartments for rent exposes himself to the danger of only one specific risks associated with the implementation of the insurance business. This risk is called the technical risk of the insurer. The technical risk of the insurer encourages him to participate actively in preventive measures against fires, accidents, etc. to reduce its degree. The entire civilized world has long since mastered this form of business protection insurance. Unfortunately, domestic entrepreneurs article of such expenses is sometimes not provided. But if big businessmen in the occurrence of negative economic phenomena can balance their financial and production indicators, medium and small entrepreneurs, as a rule, be on the verge of ruin. The insurance market arises only at a certain level of development of the demand for insurance protection. The second condition is the presence of insurers offering a wide range of types of insurance. The future development of the insurance business risks due to several reasons. First, by forming a layer of entrepreneurs in a market economy. Secondly, the expansion of insurance of property interests. Thirdly, the increasing interdependence in the business, which resulted in the development of the insurers of a new sphere of activity - guarantees and warranties. Under the business risk insurance refers to the insurance of risks of not receiving the expected income from entrepreneurial activities involved in leasing flats for violating their obligations entrepreneur or change the terms of this activity is not dependent on the entrepreneur circumstances. Business risks are part of financial risks and relate to property insurance. They can be divided into internal and external. External risks are not directly related to the activities of entrepreneurs, their clients and counterparties (for example, natural disasters, technological disasters, malicious acts of third parties, political events). Internal risks arise from the specific activity of entrepreneurs and may include the following set of insurance claims: � non-payment or underpayment for contracts consignment, sale, loan agreements and other contractual conditions; � violation of the terms of delivery or incomplete delivery of goods and services; � economic insolvency, bankruptcy; � the insolvency of the debtor insured, etc.
Becoming increasingly widespread insurance against loss of profits as a result of forced interruption of production. The insured property may be destroyed (or damaged) resulting from fire, accident, water systems, theft, etc. In the insurance contract may provide for the following: if due to the destruction of certain assets of the insured (machinery, production equipment, buildings, structures) due to the events of the normal business activities of the insured ceases or its volume will be reduced, the insurer shall indemnify the insured for loss of profits that could be obtained in the normal operation of the enterprise. The size of insurance indemnity if the insured is usually determined on the basis of accounting documents of the insured and special calculations. This is the average amount of profit for a certain period (usually 12 months) preceding the conclusion of the insurance contract. When establishing the amount of insurance compensation also takes into account all the factors that inevitably would affect the results of economic activity of the enterprise, if it was not interrupted for reasons stated. Contracts of insurance against interruption of production can also be provided that the insurer shall be reimbursed not only lost profits, but also the cost of the insured is required to restore the normal functioning of the enterprise (additional costs). Of greater importance in recent years become the insurance risk associated with the nonperformance of obligations by counterparties. This can be a financial risk on a single trade, for example, the risk of a supply contract or sale of goods. Insurer - provider, sending the goods to the buyer with a condition subsequent to the payment, you may enter into a contract of insurance of financial risks, the terms of which the insurer shall indemnify the insured for loss of income in case of nonperformance by the counterparty of its obligations under the contract of sale of goods. In the United States to the group of insurable business risks include: fire and other natural disasters; the risk of destruction or damage of goods in transit; the risk of negligence of employees of the company; the risk of default by one of the employees or group of workers (subcontractors), what determines the implementation of the entire project; the risk of suspension of business activity of the company; the risk of possible death or illness of a Director, senior employee from intellectual activity which depends the success of the company. Insurance of business risk highlighted by the Civil code of the Russian Federation essentially in the individual insurance business property insurance, replacing the insurance of financial risks. Insurance of business risks the city Novosibirsk provides for the obligations of the insurer under the insurance payments in the amount of full or partial compensation for loss of income or additional expenses of the insured, caused by such events as the stopping or reduction of the volume of industrial activity in the specified reasons; bankruptcy; failure to perform or improper performance of contractual obligations by the insured contractor, which the creditor; incurred by the insured court or any unforeseen costs and so on, the Object of the contract of insurance of entrepreneurial risk can be the property interests of the insured related to the risk of a breach by the contractors of the insured of its obligations to him. In this case, the insurance contract serves as a way of securing the performance of obligations under the main contract. In practice, insurers throughout real estate often in addition to the contract of insurance of entrepreneurial risk on the initiative of the insurer shall use other methods of securing the performance of obligations under the main contract.
The most common example of �interim� agreement at the conclusion of the pledge agreement. The insurer contributes into the insurance contract condition of joining the insurance contract in force since the conclusion of the �interim� agreement and payment of the insurance premium (fee). Attempts contributing to the introduction of the insurance contract in force on the date of the conclusion of another agreement, except for the base, which is provided by insurance, are illegal. Insurance of business risks is carried out either in case of breach of obligations by the company of the entrepreneur, or in case of change of conditions of activity of the entrepreneur by force majeure. Since this refers to a systematic activity aimed at profit (article 2 of the civil code), and changes in the operating environment should be regular. That is, under the contract of insurance of entrepreneurial risk cannot be insured, such as lost profits due to the random one-time loss of cargo, but only because of such changes in the conditions under which cases of loss of the goods steadily increased due to the use of programs sst advanced security in the field of Internet risks.. This, however, does not mean that the contract of insurance of entrepreneurial risk cannot be insured loss of profit due to one-time loss of cargo in connection with the breach of an obligation by the counterparties. It also does not mean that lost profits may not be insured under the insurance contract of the goods, as described in paragraph 7 of Annex 2 to the licensing Terms. The changes in the operating environment should be for the entrepreneur random in nature, i.e. it must be in respect of this change in honest ignorance. There can be, for example, the insured